9 Grammar

Use this domain for technical linguistic terms that refer to grammatical words and constructions. Most languages have few if any words in this domain.

  • What words refer to the study of grammar?
    grammar, syntax, morphology
  • What words refer to types of grammatical words?
    noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, preposition, particle, article, word, participle, infinitive, part of speech, compound, derivative
  • What words refer to types of grammatical constructions?
    phrase, clause, sentence, paragraph
  • What words refer to parts of words?
    root, stem, affix, prefix, suffix, ending, morpheme,
  • What words are used to talk about grammar?
    inflect, inflection, case, decline, declension, conjugate, conjugation, parse, paradigm, rule, singular, plural
  • What words are used to talk about the sounds of a language?
    letter, consonant, vowel, syllable
  • 9.1 General words

    Use the following section for words that don't belong in any other domain because they are so general in meaning that you can use them to talk about any topic. Use this domain for general and indefinite words that can be used in the place of any word. Some languages have a general word that can replace a noun or a verb. For instance some Philippine languages use the word 'kwan' in this way. Colloquial German can use the word 'dings' as a noun or verb. Often these words are used when you can't remember the particular word you are trying to think of. In English we use the word 'blank' when we don't want to say a word, for instance when we are testing someone and want them to say the word.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    13 Be, Become, Exist, Happen
  • What words can be used in the place of any word?
    blank, ... (ellipsis), you know what I mean
  • 9.1.1 Be

    Many languages have general words that indicate some kind of state. These general words may be used with a wide variety of specific meanings. For instance in English the word 'be' may be used to identify something, describe something, and many other ideas.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    13A State
  • What words refer to something being something?
    be, represent, amount to, form, make, constitute
  • What words indicate that something is being identified?
    is
  • What words indicate that a group of things is something?
    make up, form, constitute, add up to,
  • 9.1.1.1 Exist

    Use this domain for words indicating that something exists.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    13C Exist
  • What words are used to indicate that something exists?
    exist, existence, there is, there exists, there lives, be, be found, occur, be in existence, be in operation, real,
  • What words refer to something starting to exist?
    appear, arise, coalesce, come into being, come into existence, come to be, develop, emerge, form, materialize, spring up, take shape
  • What words refer to continuing to exist?
    remain, persist, persistence, survive, survival, survivor,
  • What words refer to something ceasing to exist?
    become extinct, extinction, die out, disappear, vanish, cease to exist, disappearance, disintegrate, disintegration, fade, loss,
  • What words refer to not existing?
    non-existent, extinct, there's no, there's no such thing,
  • 9.1.1.2 Become, change state

    Many languages have general words that indicate some kind of change of state. These general words may be used with a wide variety of specific meanings. For instance in English the word 'become' may be used to a change in identity, a change in characteristic, a change in nature, and many other ideas.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    13B Change of State
  • What words are used to indicate a change of state?
    become (characteristic), change, come to be, turn, get, develop, grow into, turn into, change into, become different, evolve
  • What words are used of causing or producing a state?
    produce, cause to be, make to be, make, make into, result in, bring upon, bring about
  • What words are used of attaining a state?
    come to be, attain, achieve, reach
  • 9.1.1.3 Have, of

    Many languages have several general words that are used to indicate a variety of relationships between two things. There are three such words in English:
    "have," "of," and the possessive suffix "-'s." The basic meaning of these words in English is 'to own', but they can mean many other things too. For instance they can mean that I am related to someone (I have a brother), something has a part (birds have wings), and many other ideas. There is also a set of pronouns in English that are like nouns ending in -'s (my/mine, your/yours, his, her/hers, its, our/ours, their/theirs, whose). Use this domain for these general words.

  • What general words relate two nouns?
    have, of, -'s
  • 9.1.1.4 Attribution

    Attributes often belong to a class of attributes (shape = straight, curved) or to a scale (length = long, short). The class or scale can sometimes be included in the expression, but does not mark the proposition itself. (The towel <feels> damp. The box <weighs> five kilos.)

  • What words are used to indicate an attribute of something?
    found to be, discover to be, turn out to be, be in many ways
  • What words indicate a point on a scale?
  • What words indicate an evaluation of something?
  • 9.1.2 Do

    Use this domain for general verbs with a volitional subject (agent).

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    42 Perform, Do
    42A Function
    42B Do, Perform
  • What general words refer to someone doing something?
    do, act, actuate, behave, accomplish, achieve, attain, conduct, effectuate, engage in, execute, exercise, exert, function, give, go about, dabble in, implement, manage, perform, practice, progress, undertake, up to, use, utilize, work, operate, be involved in
  • What words refer to the thing that is done?
    deed, thing to do, something to do, what you do, act (n), action, activity, event, behavior, accomplishment, achievement, attainment, execution, exercise, function (n), job, implementation, measure, performance, practice (n), task, undertaking, work (n), workmanship, feat, exploits, operation
  • What words refer to the person doing something?
    achiever, actor, doer, performer, agent
  • What words describe someone who is doing something?
    active, in action
  • How do you ask someone what he is doing?
    What are you doing? What are you up to? What do you think you are doing?
  • 9.1.2.1 Happen

    Use this domain for non-volitional pro-verbs.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    13D Happen
  • What words refer to something happening?
    happen, occur, take place, chance, befall, betide, supervene,
  • What words refer to something that has happened?
    event, experience, affair, occurrence, phenomenon, occasion,
  • 9.1.2.2 React, respond

    Use this domain for words referring to reacting or responding to something.

  • What words refer to reacting or responding?
    react, respond,
  • What words refer to reacting to someone in the same way they treat you?
    reciprocate, give back,
  • What words refer to reacting too strongly?
    overreact,
  • What words refer to how someone reacts?
    reaction, response, feedback, backlash,
  • What words refer to the ability to react quickly to something?
    reactions, reflexes,
  • What words refer to reacting in a good way?
    responsive
  • 9.1.2.3 Create

    Use this domain for words referring to creating something--causing something to be that did not exist before.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    42C Make, Create
  • What words refer to inventing something?
    create, dream up, imagine, compose, contrive, design, devise, invent, conceive of, think up, make up
  • What words refer to something that has been invented?
    design, invention, conception, dream
  • What words refer to something that has been created?
    creation, creature,
  • What words refer to a person who creates?
    creator, inventor,
  • What words describe something that was created?
    created,
  • 9.1.2.4 Design

    Use this domain for words referring to designing something--to decide and plan how something new will look and work.

  • What words refer to designing something?
    design, plan,
  • What words refer to the way something is designed?
    design,
  • What words refer to someone who designs things?
    designer, architect, planners
  • 9.1.2.5 Make

    Use this domain for words referring to making something--joining things together to create something to be that did not exist before.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    42C Make, Create
  • What words refer to making something?
    make, build, construct, create, fabricate, fashion, form, generate, manufacture, prepare, produce, shape, bring into being,
  • What words refer to something that has been made?
    artifact, building, construction, manufactured goods, product, production
  • What words refer to a person who makes something?
    builder, maker, producer, manufacturer
  • What words describe something that was made?
    man-made, hand-made, manufactured, artificial, synthetic
  • 9.1.2.6 Change something

    Use this domain for words referring to someone changing something.

  • What words are used to refer to changing something?
    change (v), change (n), revise, revision, revolutionize, revolution, reform, reformation, modify, modification, develop, development, make different, impact, process, transform,
  • What words refer to a person who changes something?
    revolutionary, reformer, radical
  • What words describe something that can be changed?
    changeable
  • What words describe a big change?
    big, major, sweeping, radical, fundamental, revolutionary, monumental,
  • What words describe a small change?
    small, slight, tiny, minute,
  • What words describe a quick change?
    quick, fast, rapid,
  • What words describe a slow change?
    slow, gradual,
  • 9.1.2.7 Event propositions

    Use this domain for words that indicate event propositions. Event propositions are similar in that they are normally expressed by a subject and a verb, possibly including an object, indirect object, or complement clause. However there are multiple ways in which a language can express an event, such as a passive construction, noun phrase, or subordinate clause. In addition each event type is different in its primary cases, and in the ways those cases are marked. Each event type has subtypes, such as intransitive, transitive, and bitransitive verbs. A great deal of research is needed in order to identify all the variations. Ultimately every verb must be investigated to determine how it behaves in each syntactic construction and how its case relations are marked. No two verbs are entirely alike.

  • What words indicate an event?
    -ing, -'s...-ing, -ing...of, to,
  • 9.1.3 Thing

    Use this domain for general words referring to things.

  • What general words refer to a thing?
    thing, something, article, artifact, entity, item, object, wares,
  • What words refer to a group of things of different types?
    things, oddments, paraphernalia, stuff, odds and ends, bits and pieces, knick-knacks,
  • What words are used to refer to something when you can't remember what it is called?
    what's its name, thingy, thingamajig, whatchamacallit, whatsit, such and such
  • What words are used to end a list of things to indicate that there are more things in the list?
    et cetera, etc., and what not, and so forth, and the like, and on and on, ... [ellipsis]
  • 9.1.3.1 Physical, non-physical

    Use this domain for words describing something that is physical--that you can touch and see, and for words describing something that is non-physical--that you cannot touch or see.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    79A Physical, Spiritual
    79B Natural, Spiritual
  • What words describe something that is physical?
    animal nature, biological, bodily, concrete, corporal, corporeal, earthly, earthy, fleshly, incarnate, inferior, matter, material, materialistic, mundane, natural, objective, physical, seen, sensible, sensual, tangible, temporal, unspiritual, worldly
  • What words refer to something that is physical?
    substance, stuff, matter, material
  • What words describe something that is non-physical?
    disembodied, extramundane, extrasensory, immaterial, impalpable, incorporeal, instinctive, intangible, intellectual, libidinal, life, mental, metaphysical, nonphysical, nonmaterial, numinous, otherworldly, preternatural, psychic, psychological, rational, reasoning, spiritual, spiritualist, subjective, supernatural, transcendent, transcendental, unbodied, unearthly, unseen, unworldly,
  • What words refer to something that is non-physical?
    spirit
  • 9.1.3.2 Situation

    Use this domain for words referring to a situation--a particular time and place, and the things that are true about it.

  • What words refer to the general situation that exists in a place?
    situation, things, conditions, state of affairs, set-up, context,
  • What words refer to a situation that affects what can happen or what people can do?
    situation, circumstances, environment, climate, conditions, the lay of the land, which way the wind blows, scenario,
  • What words refer to a situation that exists at some time during a larger event or process?
    situation, position, state of play,
  • What words refer to the true situation rather than the situation that people think exists?
    the picture, the score, what's going on,
  • What words refer to the situation a person is in?
    situation, circumstances, position, case, plight,
  • What words indicate that something must happen or cannot happen because of the situation?
    under the circumstances, in the circumstances, given the circumstances, given the situation, as it is, as things stand, force of circumstances, the way things are,
  • 9.1.4 General adjectives

    Use this domain for general adjectives that can replace or stand for a specific adjective.

  • What general words can replace an adjective?
    such, that kind of, that sort of,
  • What question words ask for an adjective in the answer?
    what kind of, what sort of,
  • What question words ask for an ad-adjective in the answer?
    how,
  • 9.1.5 General adverbs

    Use this domain for general adverbs that can replace or stand for other adverbs.

  • What general words can replace an adverb?
    thus, thusly, so, how, like this, this way, in that way, in this manner
  • 9.2 Part of speech

    This domain is for organization purposes and should not be used for any words. Use the domains in this section for words that belong to a particular part of speech. It is best not to use these domains, since they are based on grammar and not meaning. But if you have a small group of words that belong to a part of speech and you want to list them all, you can use these domains. You can also classify words in this section if you don't know what they mean yet.

    9.2.1 Adjectives

    Use this domain to list all adjectives. If there are many adjectives in your language, you should not try to list them all here. If you want to find all the adjectives, most dictionary programs can sort your dictionary by part of speech. However if your language only has a few adjectives, you can list them all in this domain. In the book, "Where Have All the Adjectives Gone?" R. M. W. Dixon [Dixon, R. M. W. 1982. Where have all the adjectives gone? Berlin: Mouton.] identifies seven universal semantic types that are often expressed by adjectives. They are: Age (new, young, old), Dimension (big, little, long, short, wide, narrow, thick, fat, thin), Value (good, bad, proper, perfect, excellent, fine, delicious, atrocious, poor), Color (black, white, red), Human propensity (jealous, happy, kind, clever, generous, cruel, rude, proud, wicked), Physical property (hard, soft, heavy, light, rough, smooth, hot, cold, sweet, sour), Speed (fast, slow). Words in the Human propensity class may be nouns. Words in the Physical property and Speed classes may be verbs.

  • What are the adjectives in your language?
    young, big, good, black, kind, hot, fast,
  • 9.2.2 Adverbs

    Use this domain to list all adverbs. If there are many adverbs in your language, it is probably not worth the trouble to list them here. The Shoebox program (and other dictionary programs) can sort your dictionary by part of speech.

  • What adverbs are in your language?
    quickly
  • 9.2.3 Pronouns

    Use this domain for the personal pronouns, including independent, subject, object, and possessive pronouns. It is best to collect all the pronouns in a chart. This way you are more certain of collecting them all and seeing how they are related to each other. A language may have more sets and more distinctions than English does, or it may have less. For instance some languages have a pronoun 'we' which includes the hearer, and another pronoun 'we' which excludes the hearer. Other languages have an indefinite pronoun that means something like the English word 'someone'. Many languages do not have the masculine (he), feminine (she), and neuter (it) distinctions that English has. It is necessary to determine the sets and functions of the pronouns for each language.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    92 Discourse Referentials
    92A Speaker
    92B Speaker and Those Associated with the Speaker
    92C Receptor, Receptors
    92D Whom or What Spoken or Written About
    92H Emphatic Adjunct
  • What general words refer to the class of pronouns?
    pronoun
  • What pronouns refer to the speaker?
    I, me, my, mine
  • What pronouns refer to the speaker and those associated with the speaker?
    we, us, our, ours
  • What pronouns refer to the audience?
    you, your, yours
  • What pronouns refer to the people or things being spoken about?
    he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs
  • What pronouns are used for the subject of a sentence?
    I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
  • What pronouns are used for the object of a sentence?
    me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them
  • What pronouns are used in a possessive phrase?
    my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their
  • What pronouns are used in a possessive clause?
    mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs
  • What pronouns are used to emphasize the people or things being spoken about, especially when you are emphasizing that one person does something and not someone else?
    as for me (I), as for you (you), as for him (he), as for us (we), as for them (they)
  • 9.2.3.1 Reflexive pronouns

    Use this domain for pronouns that refer back to the subject of the sentence. These pronouns should be added to the chart of personal pronouns.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    92E Reciprocal Reference
  • What pronouns express reflexive reference?
    self, myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself
  • What pronouns express reciprocal reference?
    each other, one another
  • 9.2.3.2 Indefinite pronouns

    Use this domain for pronouns that do not refer to a definite person or thing, but can refer to anyone or anything. Some languages will not have all the sets of pronouns described below. Add each set you find in your language to the pronoun chart.

  • What pronouns express indefinite reference of a person?
    person, who, someone, anyone, everyone, no one, each one, whoever
  • What pronouns express indefinite reference of a thing?
    thing, what, something, anything, everything, nothing, each thing, whatever, whichever
  • What pronouns express indefinite reference of a time?
    time, period, when, sometime, anytime, every time, never, at no time, each time, whenever, sometimes
  • What pronouns express indefinite reference of a place?
    place, where, somewhere, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, each place, wherever, which way
  • What pronouns express indefinite reference of a reason?
    reason, why, for what reason, for some reason, for any reason, for each and every reason, for no reason, why ever
  • What pronouns express indefinite reference of a manner?
    manner, means, how, somehow, anyhow, every way, no way, each way, however
  • What pronouns express indefinite reference of an amount?
    amount, how much, however many, however much, plenty
  • 9.2.3.3 Relative pronouns

    Use this domain for pronouns used in relative clauses.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    92F Relative Reference
  • What pronouns are used in relative clauses?
    who, whom, that, which, why
  • 9.2.3.4 Question words

    Use this domain for pronouns used in questions.

  • What pronouns are used in questions?
    who, what, when, where, how, why
  • 9.2.3.5 Demonstrative pronouns

    Use this domain for demonstrative pronouns.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    92G Demonstrative or Deictic Reference
  • What pronouns are used to indicate a particular referent?
    a, an, the, this, these, that, those, specific,
  • 9.2.3.6 Personally

    Use this domain for words that indicate that someone does something himself, rather than through someone else.

  • What words are used to indicate that you do something yourself, rather than through someone else?
    personally, in person, direct
  • What words are used to indicate that you make something yourself rather than using a machine?
    by hand
  • 9.2.4 Prepositions, postpositions

    Use this domain to list all prepositions and postpositions.

  • What prepositions are in your language?
    in, on, at, from, to, away, toward, about,
  • 9.2.5 Conjunctions

    Use this domain to list all conjunctions.

  • What conjunctions are in your language?
    and, or, but,
  • 9.2.5.1 Phrase conjunctions

    Use this domain to list all phrase level conjunctions--conjunctions that join two words within a phrase.

  • What conjunctions join two words within a phrase?
    and, both...and, or, either...or, neither...nor, but,
  • 9.2.5.2 Clause conjunctions

    Use this domain to list all clause level conjunctions--conjunctions that join two clauses.

  • What conjunctions join two clauses?
    and, or, while, then, if, because,
  • 9.2.5.3 Sentence conjunctions

    Use this domain to list all sentence level conjunctions--conjunctions that join two sentences.

  • What conjunctions join two sentences?
    then, so,
  • 9.2.6 Particles

    Use this domain to list all particles.

  • What particles are in your language?
    He lives across the street.
  • 9.2.6.1 Classifiers

    Use this domain to list all classifiers.

  • What words indicate the class of something?
    (Japanese) -hon (long objects), -mai (flat objects), -ban (order in a series), -nin (people), -fun (minutes), -dai (large vehicles)
  • 9.2.7 Interjections

    Use this domain to list all interjections.

  • What interjections are in your language?
    Wow! Hold on! Good grief!
  • 9.2.8 Idiophones

    Use this domain to list all idiophones. If there are many idiophones in your language, it is probably not worth the trouble to list them here. The Shoebox program
    (and other dictionary programs) can sort your dictionary by part of speech.

  • What idiophones are in your language?
    knick-knack, flimflam
  • 9.2.9 Affixes

    Use this domain to list all affixes that do not fit in any of the subdomains under it. This section should be filled out by a linguist.

  • What affixes are in your language?
    -s, -ed, -ing
  • 9.2.9.1 Verb affixes

    Use this domain to list all verb affixes.

  • What affixes can be joined to verbs?
    -ing, -ed, -s
  • 9.2.9.2 Noun affixes

    Use this domain to list all noun affixes.

  • What affixes can be joined to nouns?
    -s, -en
  • 9.2.9.3 Derivational affixes

    Use this domain to list all derivational affixes. A derivational affix is joined to a root and changes it into a different word. Derivational affixes often change the root into a different part of speech. Adding a derivational affix usually changes the meaning of the root in a significant way.

  • What derivational affixes are there?
    un-, a-, self-, super-, -ment, -hood, -ous, -ly, -fy
  • 9.3 Very

    Use this domain for words that intensify an attribute.

  • What words intensify an attribute?
    very, really, highly, deeply, real, so, mighty, one, quite, ever so, bloody, decidedly, too, proper, true, extremely, such
  • What words intensify an attribute to an extreme degree?
    extremely, terribly, dreadfully, incredibly, unbelievably, ridiculously, absurdly, remarkably, exceptionally, extraordinarily, terrifically, enormously, hugely, exceedingly,
  • What words indicate that an attribute is not intense?
    not very, hardly, barely, a little, fairly
  • 9.3.1 Degree

    Use this domain for words that indicate a degree on a scale.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    78 Degree
    78E Up to, As Much As, To the Degree That
  • What words refer to the degree of something?
    degree, extent, level, thus
  • What words indicate a degree on a scale?
    high, low, greater, lesser, first, primary, secondary,
  • What words refer to a marked extent?
    up to, as much as, to the degree that
  • What words refer to a change in degree?
    fluctuate, fluctuation, move, vary,
  • What words express a comparative degree?
    more, -er
  • What words express a superlative degree?
    most, -est
  • 9.3.1.1 To a large degree

    Use this domain for words referring to a large degree.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    78A Much, Little
  • What words indicate a large degree?
    large, great, major, considerable, large scale, huge, enormous, immense, tremendous, high, advanced, rich,
  • What words refer to a large degree?
    size, magnitude,
  • 9.3.1.2 To a small degree

    Use this domain for words referring to a small degree.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    78A Much, Little
  • What words indicate a small degree?
    deficient, inappreciably, inconsequentially, insignificantly, lacking, lightly, limited, little, low, merely, moderately, negligibly, piddling, possible, puny, reasonably, relatively, slightly, somewhat, sparingly, temperately, trivial, trivially,
  • 9.3.1.3 To a larger degree

    Use this domain for words referring to a larger degree.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    78B More Than, Less Than
  • What words indicate that something is becoming larger in degree?
    advance, double, explode, gain, grow, increase, jump, rise, rocket, soar, triple,
  • What words refer to the amount by which something became larger?
    growth, explosion, hike, increase, rise,
  • What words refer to causing something to become larger in degree?
    increase, raise, swell
  • What words indicate that something is larger than another thing in degree?
    more than,
  • 9.3.1.4 To a smaller degree

    Use this domain for words referring to a smaller degree.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    78B More Than, Less Than
  • What words indicate that something is becoming smaller in degree?
    decline, decrease, diminish, drop, dwindle, fall, plummet, slide, tumble,
  • What words refer to the amount by which something became smaller?
    decline (n), decrease, fall, reduction, tumble
  • What words refer to causing something to become smaller in degree?
    decrease, lower, reduce,
  • What words indicate that something is smaller than another thing in degree?
    less than, lower,
  • 9.3.2 Completely

    Use this domain for words referring to a complete degree--when something is done, happens, is thought, is felt, etc completely and in every way.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    78D Completely, Enough
  • What words indicate that something is done to a complete degree?
    completely, fully, totally, entirely, wholly, absolutely, utterly, positively, in every way, in every respect, in every sense, through and through, whole-heartedly, altogether, out-and-out, outright, perfect, perfectly, roundly, solid, solidly, thoroughly, unmitigated, unqualified, utter,
  • What general words refer to all of something's attributes or manners?
    completely, in every way,
  • What words describe something that is done completely?
    complete, thorough, full, comprehensive, exhaustive, entire,
  • 9.3.3 Partly

    Use this domain for words referring to a complete degree--when something is done, happens, is thought, is felt, etc completely and in every way.

  • What words indicate that something is done partly?
    partly, partially, to some extent, to a certain extent, to a degree, to some degree, up to a point, in part, sort of,
  • What words indicate that something is done one part at a time?
    gradually, in stages, step by step, one step at a time, in increments, incrementally, piecemeal, by degrees, little by little,
  • 9.3.4 Do intensely

    Use this domain for words indicating intensity of an action.

  • What words are used to indicate that something is being done intensely?
    intense, intensely, extensively
  • 9.3.5 Attribution of an attribute

    Use this domain for words that modify an attribute.

  • What words modify an attribute?
    fairly, sort of, quite,
  • 9.4 Semantic constituents related to verbs

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that modify verbs.

    9.4.1 Tense and aspect

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate tense and aspect.

    9.4.1.1 Tense

    Use this domain for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate tense (also known as temporal deixis)--the time of a situation (event, activity, or state) in relation to a reference point, which is usually the time of utterance. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

  • present: the situation occurs simultaneously with the moment of speech.
  • past: the situation occurred before the moment of speech.
  • future: the situation takes place after the moment of speech; the speaker predicts that the situation in the proposition will hold.
  • crastinal: tomorrow.
  • hesternal: yesterday.
  • hodiernal: today, normally with past.
  • pre-hodiernal: before today.
  • post-crastinal: after tomorrow.
  • ancient past: used for narrating events in ancient or mythical time.
  • remote: combines with other tense labels to indicate a situation occurring temporally distant from the moment of speech.
  • immediate: a meaning label that may be combined with other tense labels to indicate a situation not simultaneous with the moment of speech, but very close to it.
  • immediate future: what is about to occur.
  • immediate past: occurring immediately before the moment of speech. Also called the Recent Past. Do not use this label if there is any sense of current relevance--use anterior for that.
  • Immediate may also be combined with anterior or imperative.
  • expected future: the situation is to occur in the near future; what is scheduled to happen.
  • narrative time: the use of a form with no other past uses for reporting a past narrative.
  • gnomic present: the situation described in the proposition is generic; the predicate has held, holds, and will hold for the class of entities named by the subject, such as 'Elephants have trunks'.
  • What general words refer to the tense of an event?
    tense, time
  • What words are used to indicate the present tense?
    (no words or affixes in English)
  • What words are used to indicate the past tense?
    -ed, (in English vowel replacement is also used to indicate past tense, e.g. run, ran)
  • What words are used to indicate the future tense?
    will, going to
  • 9.4.1.2 Aspect--dynamic verbs

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate aspects of dynamic verbs. Aspects describe the temporal contours of a situation. They may be combined with any of the tenses, either in the same morpheme or in combinations of morphemes. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

  • habitual: the situation is customary or usual, repeated on different occasion over a period of time. English 'used to' is past habitual; English 'Nancy sings' is present habitual.
  • continuous: a single situation is viewed as in progress, as maintained over a period of time; also called "durative." The English "Progressive" is a continuous restricted to dynamic words. English 'I am reading; *I am knowing the number'.
  • continuative: keep on doing what is being done. Restricted to dynamic words.
  • progressive: the action takes place simultaneously with the moment of reference, 'to be in the process of...'. This is more restricted than the English Progressive, which may be used for events that are not actually in progress at reference time: 'I am writing a book' may be used even if the speaker is not at that moment writing.
  • excessive duration: action is extended over a long period of time, longer than normal for that action.
  • limited duration: action performed for a relatively short or bounded period of time.
  • iterative: the action is repeated on one occasion; usually restricted to dynamic words, often further restricted to semelfactive words.
  • frequentative: action occurs frequently, not necessarily habitually, nor necessarily on one occasion, as is the iterative.
  • imperfective: the situation is viewed as unbounded in the sense that it is habitual, continuous, progressive, or iterative.
  • perfective: the situation is viewed as bounded temporally. It cannot be simultaneous with the moment of speech; in the non-past it is sometimes interpreted as future.
  • completive: to do something thoroughly and to completion, e.g. 'to shoot someone dead, to eat up'.
  • inceptive: the action or event begins. We are distinguishing this from the beginning of a state.
  • delimited: action is performed only a little.
  • The preceding terms or "Aspects" are not usually relevant to stative words.
  • What general words refer to an aspect of an event?
    aspect
  • What words are used to indicate that something has begun?
    begin, start, commence, beginning, the start, commencement, initiate, to institute, inception
  • What do people say when they want someone else to start?
    go, dig in, have at it, let's go, let's do it, move it, let's get going, "on your marks, get set, go", "ready, set, go"
  • What is a person called who starts something?
    initiator, founder, originator, starter
  • What words are used to indicate that someone is attempting to do something?
    try, attempt
  • What words are used to indicate that something is being done quickly?
    quick, quickly, rapidly
  • What words are used to indicate that something happened suddenly?
    sudden, suddenly, suddenness, immediate
  • What words are used to indicate something is continuing?
    continue, continuous, keep on
  • What words are used to indicate that something has been completed?
    complete, finish, succeed
  • 9.4.1.3 Aspect--stative verbs

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate aspects of stative verbs. Aspects describe the temporal contours of a situation. They may be combined with any of the tenses, either in the same morpheme or in combinations of morphemes. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

  • state exists: the state is begun before reference time and continues after reference time.
    is,
  • state commences: beginning of a state of "becoming." Often called Inceptive or Inchoative. If there is a morpheme specifically for this meaning, it is usually derivational and restricted to stative words. However, it is also possible for "Perfects" or "Perfectives" to have this as their use with stative words.
    becoming,
  • state ends: state existed in the past, but no longer exists. Also a possible meaning of "Perfects" or "Perfectives" in combination with stative words.
    no longer,
  • state continues: state is continuing a reference time.
    still,
  • state changes: (self-explanatory).
    turn,
  • 9.4.1.4 Relational tenses

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate relational tenses. Relational tenses describe situations where the reference time is not the same as the moment of speech. They may be combined with any of the tenses, either in the same morpheme or in combinations of morphemes. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

  • resulting state (resultative): action in the past produces a state that persists into the present.
    be... -en,
  • anterior continuing: past action continues into the present: 'I have waited over an hour' ( = and I'm still waiting).
    have been... -ing,
  • anterior: the situation occurs prior to reference time, and is relevant to the situation at reference time. This is different from a simple past or perfective, where the situation is reported for its own sake and independent of its relevance to any other situation.
    have... -en,
  • A form that signals a situation that is prior to and relevant to a past reference time will be coded with two meaning labels, past and anterior.
    had... -en,
  • 9.4.2 Agent-oriented modalities

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate agent-oriented modalities. Agent-oriented modalities describe internal or external conditions on a willful agent with respect to the completion of the predicate situation. They may be combined with any of the tenses, either in the same morpheme or in combinations of morphemes. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71 Mode
  • ability: the agent of the verb has the mental or physical ability to complete the action of the main verb.
  • ability, mental: English: 'Melissa can speak Dutch'.
    can,
  • ability, physical: English: 'Hortense can swim the English Channel'.
    can,
  • attempt: the agent attempts to complete the action specified by the predicate. Note: this has a sense of incompleteness, and I have seen authors call this "Incomplete" and gloss the examples with 'try'.
    try to, attempt to,
  • desire: the agent of the verb desires or wants to complete the action of the verb.
    want to, would like to,
  • obligation: the agent is obliged to perform the action of the verb.
  • obligation, strong: it is absolutely incumbent upon the agent to complete the action of the main verb: 'I have to mail this letter today'.
    have to, must,
  • obligation, weak: it is recommended that the agent complete the action of the main verb: 'Harry ought to get a haircut before meeting Sue's mother'.
    ought to, should,
  • permission: the agent is allowed to complete the action of the main verb: 'The students may check books out for two weeks'.
    may,
  • root possibility: it is possible for the agent to carry out the action of the main verb; i.e. s/he is able and external conditions allow it: 'You can get that kind of paper at Ulbrich's'.
    can,
  • intention: the agent intends to carry out the action of the main verb: 'Sam's gonna take Sanskrit next semester'.
    gonna, going to, intend to,
  • andative: agent moves away from the deictic center in order to do something, literally 'be going to do something'. Of course such forms are often related to the verb 'to go' and also may have uses of intention and future.
    go to,
  • venitive: the agent moves toward the deictic center in order to do something, literally 'be coming to do something'. This may be related to the verb 'to come' and may have future uses as well.
    come to,
  • 9.4.2.1 Can

    Use this domain for words indicating that someone can do something.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    74 Able, Capable
  • What words indicate that someone is able to do something?
    can, know how to, be able to, have the ability to, capable,
  • What words refer to the ability of someone to do something?
    ability, capability, prowess,
  • What words indicate that someone is not able to do something?
    inability, unable, incapable,
  • 9.4.2.2 Can't

    Use this domain for words related to being incapable of doing something.

  • What words describe a person's inability to do a job?
    can't do something, not be able to do something, cannot, be incapable of, not be capable of, be unable to do something, someone's inability to do something, incompetent, unqualified, unfitted, untrained, not be equipped, be ill-equipped, powerless,
  • What words refer to a person's inability to do a job?
    incapacity, incompetence, inability, deficiency, lack of training
  • 9.4.2.3 Necessary

    Use this domain for words that a speaker uses to indicate that he thinks something must happen.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71E Necessary, Unnecessary
  • What words indicate that something is necessary?
    must, need to, have to, have got to
  • What words describe something that is necessary?
    necessary, compulsory, essential, imperative, indispensable, inevitable, mandatory, obligatory, required, unavoidable, urgent, vital,
  • What words refer to something that is necessary?
    necessity, need, obligation, prerequisite, requirement,
  • What words describe something that is not necessary?
    unnecessary, extraneous, incidental, inessential, needless, nonessential, uncalled-for, unessential, unnecessary, unneeded,
  • 9.4.3 Moods

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate moods.

    9.4.3.1 Imperative

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate imperatives. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. Use this domain for words and affixes that a speaker uses to indicate that he is making a command. English has no command word. Some languages change the form of the verb by adding an affix. Some languages have special verbs that are only or normally used as commands. Those verbs could be classified here.

  • imperative: the verb form used for direct commands in the 2nd person. If there are also 1st and 3rd person forms, the meaning can still be that of imperative, with the 1st and 3rd persons being interpreted as 'Let us, let him...', etc.
  • optative: the proposition represents the speaker's will. Translated into English as 'May you prosper', 'May we all meet again.' with counterfactual: 'If only he had...', etc.
  • hortative: the speaker is encouraging or inciting someone to action.
  • prohibitive: the mood for expressing negative commands. The English is 'Don't'.
  • admonitive: the command constitutes a warning: 'you had better not...'.
  • Meanings co-occurring with imperative:
  • polite: a mild or polite form of command.
  • delayed: the action of the command is to be carried out in the future rather than immediately.
  • immediate: the action of the command is to be carried out immediately.
  • strong: (self-explanatory).
  • What words indicate that the sentence is a command?
    (none in English)
  • What affixes indicate that the sentence is a command?
    (none in English), (in many Bantu languages) -e 'a verbal suffix indicating that the sentence is a command'
  • What words are only used in the imperative?
    whoa (stop)
  • 9.4.3.2 Hortative

    Use this domain for ways of saying that someone should do something. If I say someone should do something, I think it is good that he does it.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71D Should, Ought
  • What words indicate that the speaker is encouraging or inciting someone to action.
    urge, request, let, why don't, please
  • What words indicate that something should be done?
    should, ought to, be responsible for, be duty bound,
  • What words indicate that something should not be done?
    should not, ought not to, caution
  • What words refer to something a person should do?
    duty, responsibility, obligation, onus, requirement,
  • What words describe the person who should do something?
    responsible,
  • What words describe someone who does what he should?
    dutiful, responsible
  • 9.4.3.3 Interrogative

    Use this domain for words that a speaker uses to indicate that he is asking a question. English has no question word, but other languages such as Japanese do.

  • What words indicate that the sentence is a question?
    (Japanese) ka? 'a particle coming at the end of a sentence to indicate that it is a question'
  • English has an interjection that is added to a statement that has the effect of questioning something about it.
  • 9.4.4 Epistemic moods

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate epistemic moods. Epistemic moods have the whole proposition in their scope and indicate the degree of commitment of the speaker to the truth or future truth of the proposition. They may be combined with any of the tenses, either in the same morpheme or in combinations of morphemes. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71 Mode
  • possibility: the speaker is indicating that the situation described in the proposition is possibly true. Some markers with this meaning also indicate future time: 'He may arrive late because of the weather; It may snow again tomorrow; She could have already taken it'.
    may, could,
  • probability: the speaker is indicating that the situation described in the proposition is probably true. Some marker with this meaning also indicate future time. This is sometimes called the "Dubitative" in grammars: 'Paula should be home by now'.
    should,
  • inferred certainty: the speaker infers from evidence that the proposition is true: 'They must have killed a bear here (I can see blood on the snow)'.
    must have,
  • certainty: the speaker is emphasizing that the proposition is true.
    certainly,
  • uncertainty: the speaker is emphasizing that s/he doesn't know that the proposition is true.
    might,
  • indicative: main clause mood that also appears in questions. Contrasts with subjunctive, conditional, and imperative.
    [none in English]
  • 9.4.4.1 Certainly, definitely

    Use this domain for words that a speaker uses to indicate that he thinks something is certainly true or is certain to happen.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71C Certain, Uncertain
  • What words indicate that something is certainly true?
    certainly, absolutely, definitely, there is no doubt, undoubtedly, without a doubt, without doubt, without a shadow of a doubt, unquestionably, be beyond dispute, there's no denying, there are no two ways about it, there is no question
  • What words indicate that something will certainly happen?
    certainly, definitely, be bound to, be sure to, be certain to, be assured of, be only a matter of time, be just a matter of time, cut and dried, you can bet your life, you can bet your bottom dollar, be a certainty, be a foregone conclusion, for sure
  • What words indicate that something will certainly succeed?
    can't go wrong, be a dead cert, it's in the bag, it's a safe bet, it's a sure bet, foolproof
  • What words refer to doing something in order to be certain that something will happen?
    make sure, make certain, insure, ensure, see that, see to it
  • What words indicate that something is certain to happen and nothing can be done to stop it?
    inevitable, whether you like it or not, willy nilly, be fated to, be destined to, predestined, be meant to be, pre-ordained, doomed, the inevitable
  • What words describe something that is certain?
    certain, definite, conclusive
  • What words indicate that something is certainly not true?
    absolute, assurance, assured, can, certain, certainly, certitude, clear, decided, decisive, definite, doubtless, established, fixed, guaranteed, incalculable, incontestable, incontrovertible, indisputable, indubitable, ineluctable, inevitable, infallible, inescapable, inevitable, irrefragable, irrefutable, positive, really, set, settled, single-minded, sure, sureness, trustworthy, unarguable, unavoidable, undeniable, unequivocal, unmistakable, unquestionable,
  • 9.4.4.2 Sure

    Use this domain for words related to being sure that something is true.

  • What words indicate that someone is certain about something?
    be sure, be certain, be positive, know, know very well, swear, I could have sworn, have no doubt, confident, convinced, satisfied (that), I bet, I'd put money on it, say what you like,
  • What words refer to making someone sure about something?
    convince
  • 9.4.4.3 Probably

    Use this domain for words that a speaker uses to indicate that he thinks something is probable or likely to occur.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71B Probable, Improbable
  • What words indicate that something will probably happen?
    probably, likely, probable, be a strong possibility, it looks as if, it looks like, chances are, may well, be in the cards, as likely as not, I wouldn't be surprised if, I dare say, I should think, I guess
  • What words indicate that something is probably true?
    probably, likely, probable, it looks as if, it's a fair bet, may well, may easily, as likely as not, I should think
  • What words indicate that something is very probably true
    very probably, very likely, there is a strong likelihood, there is a strong probability, almost certain, be more than likely, in all probability, ten to one
  • What words indicate that something good will probably happen?
    ought to be, should be, promise to be, looks promising,
  • What words indicate that something bad will probably happen?
    be heading for, be in for, threaten, threat
  • What words indicate that someone or something will probably be successful?
    have a good chance, stand a good chance, be set to do something, be on course
  • What words indicate that someone will probably do something bad?
    be quite capable of, I wouldn't put it past him
  • What words indicate how probable it is that something will happen?
    likelihood, probability, prospect, chances, odds
  • What words indicate that something is possible but not very probable?
    unlikely, improbable, doubtful, remote
  • What words indicate that someone or something will probably not be successful?
    little chance, little hope, little prospect, have little chance, stand little chance, outside chance
  • 9.4.4.4 Possible

    Use this domain for words that a speaker uses to indicate that he thinks something is possible. Maybe implies that the speaker doesn't know something.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71A Possible, Impossible
  • What words indicate that something is possible?
    possible, possibly, could, might, may, able, maybe, perhaps, sort of, I guess so
  • 9.4.4.5 Uncertain

    Use this domain for words that indicate that no one is certain that something is true, or when it is impossible to be certain that something is true.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71C Certain, Uncertain
  • What words indicate that something is uncertain?
    uncertain, not be certain, not be clear, it's up in the air, there is uncertainty
  • What words indicate that something is uncertain, but it is likely that something bad will happen?
    uncertain, doubtful, be in doubt, there is doubt about, it's touch and go, hang in the balance, iffy
  • What words indicate that two things are equally possible?
    could go either way, borderline, there's a fifty-fifty chance, it's a toss-up
  • What words indicate that something is uncertain because people have many different opinions about it?
    debatable, questionable, open to question, open to debate, moot point
  • 9.4.4.6 Unsure

    Use this domain for words related to not feeling sure about something or someone.

  • What words refer to not being sure about something?
    not be sure, not be certain, be unsure, be uncertain, not know, doubt, wonder, can't be sure, not be confident, be indefinite about, ambivalent
  • What words refer to not being sure whether you should do something?
    have doubts, have reservations, have misgivings, have mixed feelings, have qualms, hesitant
  • What words refer to making someone unsure about something?
    make someone unsure, make someone uncertain, cause doubt, cause uncertainty, it makes you wonder, raise doubts
  • 9.4.4.6.1 Think so

    Use this domain for words indicating that you think something is true, but you are not completely sure about it.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    31E Suppose, Think Possible
  • What words indicate that you think something is true, but you are not completely sure about it?
    think, think it is possible, believe, bet, would gamble, would wager, guess, reckon, speculate, surmise, suspect, get the impression, have the impression, be under the impression, get the idea, feel, have the feeling, get the feeling,
  • What words indicate that you think something is true, but you have no proof of it?
    assume, assumption, presume, suppose, imagine, take it for granted, presumably, I take it
  • What do you say when you think something is true, but you are not sure?
    I think so, I guess so, as far as I know, to the best of my knowledge, as far as I'm aware,
  • 9.4.4.6.2 Maybe

    Use this domain for words that a speaker uses to indicate that he thinks it is possible that something may happen or be true, but he isn't certain.

  • What words indicate that maybe something may happen or is true?
    maybe, perhaps, may, might, it is possible, possibly, could, who knows?, there's a chance, you never know, conceivably,
  • What words indicate that the speaker is guessing about a number or amount, but is not certain?
    maybe, perhaps, possibly,
  • What words indicate that the speaker is not certain about a suggestion, plan, or idea?
    maybe, perhaps,
  • 9.4.4.6.3 Seem

    Use this domain for words indicating that something seems to be a certain way--you see (or hear) something and think something about it, but you are not sure that what you think is true.

  • What words indicate that something seems to be a certain way, but you are unsure?
    seem, appear, look, sound, give the impression, have a (certain) look, come across as, show signs of, strike someone as, have all the hallmarks of, an air of, give the impression,
  • What words indicate that someone seems to be doing something, or something seems to be happening?
    seem, appear,
  • What words indicate that something seems to be happening, or something seems to be true?
    it seems, it appears, it looks as if, apparently, to all appearances, by all appearances, seemingly, on the face of it, on the surface, outwardly,
  • What words describe something, such as a feeling or quality, that someone or something seems to have?
    apparent, seeming, superficial,
  • What words indicate that, because something seems to be a certain way, you think something is true?
    judging by, judging from, going by, from, from the way, you'd think, anyone would think,
  • What words indicate that someone or something is not what it seems to be?
    there's more to someone/something than meets the eye, deceptive, deceptively, not be what you/it seem,
  • What words refer to what you think or feel because of what someone or something seems?
    impression, feeling,
  • What words refer to the way something seems to appear?
    appearance, semblance of,
  • 9.4.4.7 Just, almost not

    Use this domain for words indicating that although something is true, it almost is not true.

  • What words indicate that although something is true, it almost is not true?
    just, almost didn't, nearly didn't, only just, narrowly, barely,
  • What words indicate that something bad almost happened, but it did not?
    narrowly missed, close shave
  • What words indicate that you did something, but almost didn't do it?
    just, only just, barely, be a near thing, be a close thing, by the skin of your teeth
  • What words indicate that you can do something, but it is difficult?
    can hardly, can barely, can scarcely
  • What words indicate that something is a particular amount, but not much more?
    just, only just, barely
  • 9.4.4.8 Don't think so, doubt it

    Use this domain for words indicating that you think something is unlikely to be true or to happen.

  • What words indicate that you think it is very unlikely that something is true or will happen?
    don't think, doubt, be doubtful, be dubious, I'd be surprised if, I think not, I wouldn't have thought so
  • 9.4.4.9 Impossible

    Use this domain for words that a speaker uses to indicate that he thinks something is impossible.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    71A Possible, Impossible
  • What words indicate that something cannot be done?
    impossible, not possible, impracticable, there's no way, out of the question, hopeless, impractical
  • What words indicate that your situation makes it impossible for you to do something?
    impossible, not have a hope, not stand a chance, can't possibly, that's out, with the best will in the world, do the impossible
  • What words indicate that something cannot happen?
    impossible, not possible, can't, couldn't, impossibility, inconceivable, unthinkable, by any/no stretch of the imagination, there's no way
  • What words indicate that something is impossible to get?
    unattainable, out of reach
  • What words indicate that one thing makes something else impossible?
    make something impossible, rule out, preclude
  • What words indicate that something is impossible?
    absurd, impenetrable, impervious, inaccessible, inoperable, insurmountable, no chance, no earthly way, outlandish, preposterous, ridiculous, unable, unachievable, unapproachable, undoable, unfeasible, unimaginable, unworkable,
  • 9.4.5 Evidentials

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate evidentials. An evidential is when the speaker indicates the source of the information on which an assertion about a situation is based. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

  • direct evidence: the speaker claims to have witnessed the situation, but does not specify the type of sensory evidence.
    I was there and...,
  • visual evidence: the speaker claims to have seen the situation described.
    with my own eyes I saw...,
  • auditory evidence: the speaker claims to have heard the situation described.
    with my own ears I heard...,
  • sensory evidence: the speaker claims to have physically sensed the situation described. This can be in opposition to one or both of the above senses (i.e. any other sense), or it can indicate sensory evidence that is not further specified (i.e. any sensory evidence).
  • indirect evidence: the speaker claims not to have witnessed the situation, but does not specify further whether the evidence is reported or simply inferred.
    I wasn't there but...,
  • reported evidence: the speaker claims to know of the situation described via verbal means, but does not specify whether it is second-hand, hearsay, or via folklore.
    I heard that...,
  • second-hand evidence: the speaker claims to have heard of the situation described from someone who was a direct witness.
  • evidence from hearsay: the speaker claims to have heard about the situation described, but not from a direct witness.
    it is rumored that...,
  • evidence from folklore: the speaker claims that the situation described is part of established oral history (e.g., mythology).
    according to our ancestors...,
  • inferred evidence: the speaker infers the event/action, but does not specify whether the inference is based on observable results or on a purely mental process.
  • inference from results: the speaker infers the situation described from the evidence at hand (i.e. from the observable results of the causing event/action.)
    from the results I would say...,
  • inference from reasoning: the speaker infers the situation described on the basis of intuition, logic, a dream, previous experience, or some other mental construct.
    I figure that..., I conclude that...,
  • 9.4.5.1 Evaluator

    Use this domain for words indicating who is evaluating the proposition.

  • What words indicate who is evaluating the proposition?
    to, in my opinion,
  • What words indicate that you heard what you are saying from someone else?
    according to, rumor has it, they say, people say, there is talk of, apparently, supposedly, be rumored to be,
  • 9.4.6 Yes

    Use this domain for words that affirm or agree with the truth of something, or that answer a yes/no question in the affirmative.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    69A Affirmation
    69 Affirmation, Negation
  • What words are used to affirm the truth of something?
    yes, yeah, yea, indeed, true, that's true, it is true, verily, agreed, certainly, of course, that's right, I guess so, that is so, a-huh, nod your head, affirmative, positive
  • What words are used to refer to the action of affirming the truth of something?
    affirm, affirmation, confirm, concur, agree, agreement
  • 9.4.6.1 No, not

    Use this domain for words that negate or deny the truth of something, or that answer a yes/no question in the negative.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    69B Negation
    69C Negation Combined with Clitics
  • What words are used to negate the truth of something?
    no, none, not, nay, uh-uh, no one, nothing, never, nowhere, no indeed, by no means, certainly not, most certainly not, absolutely not, shake your head, negative
  • What words are used to refer to the process of denying the truth of something?
    deny, denial, negate, negation, disavow, disavowal, contradict, contradiction, repudiate, repudiation
  • What are the noun forms of these words?
  • 9.4.6.2 Markers expecting an affirmative answer

    Use this domain for words indicating that an affirmative answer is expected to a question.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    69D Markers for an Affirmative Response to Questions
  • What words are used to indicate that an affirmative answer is expected to a question?
    n't,
  • 9.4.6.3 Markers expecting a negative answer

    Use this domain for words indicating that a negative answer is expected to a question.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    69E Markers for an Negative Response to Questions
  • What words are used to indicate that a negative answer is expected to a question?
    n't...are you,
  • 9.4.7 Subordinating particles

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate a subordinate clause. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

  • subordinating: Often there are special verb forms or morphemes associated with the verb that occur obligatorily in subordinate clauses of certain types. The extent to which such morphemes can be said to have "meaning" varies, since they often co-occur with other markers of subordination. Their function is primarily to signal the type of subordinate clause.
  • Complement clauses: A main verb may take as its direct object a clause. These are often referred to as "Noun clauses" or "Noun complements". The verb form of the subordinate clause is usually determined by the semantics of the main verb, so in this case, our meaning labels will just refer to the context. If a verb form occurs in the complements to words of thinking and believing, the meaning label will be complement to words of thinking and believing.
  • complement to words of thinking
  • complement to words of believing
  • complement to words of saying
  • complement to words of ordering (in English we use an infinitive with these words)
  • complement to words of wanting (again in English these are done with infinitives)
  • complement to words of emotion (surprise, regret, happiness, sadness, etc.; the complement proposition is presupposed to be true)
  • complement to words of obligation
  • complement to words of admonition
  • subsequent: following a reference time in the past.
  • subordinator: marker indicates that the verb is in a subordinate clause.
  • 9.4.8 Adverbial clauses

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate adverbial clauses. The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

  • There are a variety of adverbial clauses (other than conditional clauses) that sometimes require a special verb form. The meaning labels for these uses are coded according to the type of clause (purpose, concessive, etc.), whether any particular temporal deixis is part of the meaning, and under "co-occurrence restrictions," whether a particular conjunction is present. The types of clauses we might run into are:
  • purpose: the clause states the purpose for which the main clause action is taking place. Often called a "final" clause: 'He was saving his money so that his son could go to college'.
    so that
  • concessive: translated in English as 'although, even though, despite the fact that': 'She was saving her money, even though she was a wealthy woman'.
    although, even though, despite the fact that
  • 9.5 Case

    Each verb has a set of semantic case relations. For instance in the sentence 'I gave flowers to my wife' the verb give has three case relations. 'I' is the Agent,
    'flowers' is the Patient, and 'my wife is the 'Recipient'. In this sentence the only word that marks a case relation is 'to'. English often marks case relations by their position in the sentence. Some languages mark case relations by affixes, prepositions, postpositions, and sometimes special verbs. To completely describe a language, each verb must be investigated, all its case relations must be identified, and all the ways in which these relations are marked must be described. Since verbs are often unique and unpredictable in their case relations, this information should go into the dictionary. This section should be used to classify the words and affixes that are used to mark case relations. This domain should be used for technical terms that refer to case.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    90 Case
    90A Agent, Personal or Nonpersonal, Causative or Immediate, Direct or Indirect
    90C Source of Event or Activity
    90D Responsibility
    90E Viewpoint Participant
    90F Content
    90G Guarantor Participant with Oaths
    90H Opposition
    90J Reason Participant
    90K Agent of a Numerable Event
    90L Agent in a Causative Role Marked by Verbs
    90M Experiencer
    90N To Cause To Experience
  • What words are used to refer to case?
    case, declension
  • 9.5.1 Primary cases

    Use this section for primary cases.

  • What words indicate the subject of a sentence?
    (no words in English)
  • What words indicate the object of a sentence?
    (no words in English)
  • What words indicate the indirect object of a sentence?
    to,
  • 9.5.1.1 Beneficiary of an event

    Use this domain for words that mark the beneficiary of an event. The sentence "John built a house for his father" is ambiguous. If the house was for his father to live in, then "for" would mark the 'Beneficiary of a patient', meaning that the house was for the father. If, on the other hand, the father was intending to build the house to sell, but couldn't due to an injury, then "for" would mark the 'Beneficiary of an event', meaning the father benefited from the building of the house.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    90I Benefaction
  • What words mark the beneficiary of an event?
    for, for (someone's) sake, for the sake of, for (someone's) benefit, for the benefit of
  • 9.5.1.2 Instrument

    Use this domain for words that mark an instrument used to do something.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    90B Instrument
  • What words mark the instrument used to do something?
    with, using
  • 9.5.1.3 Means

    Use this domain for words indicating the means by which something is done.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89L Means
  • What words indicate the means by which something is done?
    by, by means of
  • 9.5.1.4 Way, manner

    Use this domain for words indicating the way or manner in which something is done.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89N Manner
  • What words indicate the way you do something or the way something is done?
    way, manner, style, fashion, how, thus, mode,
  • What question words ask for the manner in which something is done?
    how,
  • What words indicate that something is done in a particular way?
    in a ... way/manner/fashion, with, like, along ... lines, as if, as though, with an air of,
  • What words indicate the way in which something happened?
    in,
  • 9.5.1.5 Attendant circumstances

    Use this domain for words indicating the attendant circumstances in which something happened.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89M Attendant Circumstances
  • What words indicate attendant circumstances?
    in
  • 9.5.1.6 Spatial location of an event

    Use this domain for words indicating the spatial location of an event.

  • What words indicate the location of an event?
    at
  • 9.5.1.6.1 Source (of movement)

    Use this domain for words that mark the Source (original location) of something.

  • What words indicate the Source of movement?
    source, from
  • 9.5.1.6.2 Path (of movement)

    Use this domain for words indicating the Path of movement.

  • What words indicate the Path of movement?
    via, course, route,
  • 9.5.1.6.3 Goal (of movement)

    Use this domain for words indicating the Goal of movement.

  • What words indicate the Goal of movement?
    to, destination,
  • 9.5.1.6.4 Origin (of a person)

    Use this domain for words that mark the place where someone was born or the place where they have been living.

  • What words indicate the place where someone was born?
    from, be from (the tribe, or country),
  • What words refer to the place where a person is from?
    home town,
  • 9.5.2 Semantically similar events

    Use this section for words that join semantically similar events into one sentence. Each sentence is actually reporting two or more situations, which may differ in one or two respects. The words to be included in these domains indicate that two situations are being reported, or mark the differences between the two situations.

    9.5.2.1 Together

    Use this domain for words indicating when two or more people each do the same thing and do it together, or when they do it separately.

  • What words indicate that some people do something together?
    together,
  • What words indicate that some people do something separately?
    separately,
  • 9.5.2.2 With, be with

    Use this domain for words indicating a person who accompanied the subject of a proposition.

  • What words indicate a person who accompanied the person who is the subject of the clause?
    with, be accompanied by, company, in someone's company, in someone's presence, contact, along with, together with,
  • 9.5.2.3 With, do with someone

    Use this domain for words indicating a person who does something with another person who is the subject of the sentence.

  • What words indicate someone who goes somewhere with another person?
    with, along,
  • What words indicate someone who does something with another person?
    with, in conjunction with, in partnership with, in collaboration with, side by side with, shoulder to shoulder with,
  • What words indicate someone who does something bad with another person?
    in league with, in collusion with, in cahoots with, hand in glove with,
  • What words refer to someone who does something with another person?
    partner, companion, fellow (student), sidekick,
  • 9.5.2.4 Each other

    Use this domain for words indicating that two or more people do something to each other.

  • What words indicate that two people do something to each other?
    each other, one another, each...the other, exchange, trade, reciprocate,
  • What words describe something that people do to each other?
    mutual, reciprocal, two-way,
  • 9.5.2.5 In groups

    Use this domain for words indicating that the subjects of a clause do something in groups.

  • What words indicate that something is done in groups?
    in, by
  • 9.5.3 Patient-related cases

    Use this section for cases that bear a relationship to the 'Patient' of a proposition.

    9.5.3.1 Beneficiary (of a patient)

    Use this domain for words that mark the beneficiary of the Patient of an activity. The Patient is often expressed as the object of a sentence. In the sentence
    "John built a house for his parents," the house is the Patient. It is the house that benefits the parents, not the building of the house.

  • What words mark the beneficiary of a Patient?
    for
  • In English the Beneficiary can be the object, but many languages do not allow this.
  • 9.5.3.2 Recipient (of a patient)

    Use this domain for words that mark the recipient of the Patient of an activity. The Patient is usually expressed as the object of a sentence.

  • What words mark the recipient of a patient?
    to
  • In English the Recipient can be the object, but many languages do not allow this.
  • 9.5.3.3 With (a patient)

    Use this domain for words that mark a second Patient that accompanies the primary Patient of an activity. In this type of sentence there are actually two Patients, but one of them has more prominence than the other. The primary patient is usually expressed as the object of the sentence. The second Patient may be marked by an oblique case or preposition/postposition. For instance it may be conceived as accompanying the first Patient.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89R Linkage
  • What words mark something that is used with another thing?
    with, together with, combined with, in combination, in conjunction with, alongside, along with,
  • 9.6 Connected with, related

    Use the domains in this section for words that indicate a logical relation between two or more words or sentences. Use this domain for words that indicate an unspecified logical relation between people, things, or situations.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89 Relations
    89A Relation
  • What words indicate that two things or situations are connected somehow?
    be connected (with), be related (to), be linked (with), be associated (with), there is a link between, there is a connection between, be bound up with, go hand in hand, relate, relation, be a relationship between, relationship, have something to do with, be something to do with, be intertwined, tied, pertain, be relative to,
  • What words indicate that two people are connected somehow?
    be connected with, have links, have connections with, be linked with,
  • What words indicate that two things are connected because they are similar in some way?
    related, associated, allied,
  • What words indicate that several things are connected somehow?
    interconnected, interrelated,
  • What words refer to showing that there is a connection between two things?
    connect, link, associate, make a connection, establish a link, establish a connection, relate, correlate,
  • What words refer to something that connects two things?
    connection, relationship, link (between), point of contact, association, tie, relation, correlation, interplay,
  • What words indicate that there is no connection between two things?
    no connection, unrelated, unconnected,
  • What words indicate that something someone says has no connection with the topic being discussed?
    irrelevant, be beside the point, have nothing to do with, be nothing to do with, be neither here nor there, doesn't come into it, be a red herring,
  • 9.6.1 Coordinate relations

    Use this section for words indicating coordinate relations. Do not put any words in this domain. It is only for organizational purposes.

    9.6.1.1 And, also

    Use this domain for words that indicate that you are adding another thought to a previous thought. Words in this domain may indicate a variety of relationships between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. For instance the words may join two clauses that are the same except that the subjects are different, or the objects are different, or the verbs are different.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89Q Addition
  • What words indicate that you are adding another thought to a previous one?
    and, also, too, besides, besides this, as well, so do I/so has she/so are they, in addition, not to mention, likewise, both...and, and also, again, further, in addition to, not only...but also, some...others, first...then, let me add
  • What words indicate that you are adding something new to what you just said?
    and, also, furthermore, moreover, what's more, besides, by the way, incidentally,
  • What words indicate that you could add more things to the end of a list?
    and so on, and so on and so forth, et cetera, etc, and whatever, or whatever, and the like, and suchlike,
  • What words indicate that you are adding another in a list of thoughts?
    first, second, third, firstly, secondly, thirdly, in the first/second/third place, first of all, to begin with, to start with, finally, lastly, to conclude, in conclusion, last but not least,
  • 9.6.1.2 Or, either

    Use this domain for words indicating an alternative relation between two things or propositions.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89X Alternative Relation
  • What words indicate alternative relation?
    or, either...or, alternatively, nor, otherwise, alternative, optional,
  • 9.6.1.3 Association

    Use this domain for words indicating an association between two things.

  • What words indicate association?
    with, among, together with, between...and, be one with, in common, in union with, union
  • 9.6.1.4 Combinative relation

    Use this domain for words indicating a combinative relation between two things.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89V Combinative Relation
  • What words indicate combinative relation?
    with, together with, combined with, mixed with,
  • 9.6.1.5 But

    Use this domain for words indicating a contrast between two thoughts that are different in some way.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89W Contrast
  • What words indicate that someone wants to do something, but is not able to do it?
    but, however,
  • What words indicate that something seems to be true, but is not true?
    but, however,
  • What words indicate that something is true in spite of facts or problems that make it seem unlikely?
    but, yet, still, nevertheless, even so, anyway, all the same, in spite of this, despite this, for all that, though, although,
  • What words indicate that an opinion is different than the opinion you have just given?
    but, however, on the other hand, at the same time, having said that, mind you,
  • What words indicate that something is true of one person or thing, but not true of another?
    but, however, whereas, while, by contrast, conversely,
  • What words indicate that although one person or thing is similar to another, there is a difference between them?
    but, only, except, except for the fact that,
  • What words indicate that something could happen, but something else prevented it from happening?
    but, only, except,
  • What words indicate that the opposite of something is true?
    on the contrary, contrary to, in contrast, as opposed to,
  • 9.6.1.5.1 Except

    Use this domain for words indicating that something is an exception to a group, rule or pattern--something is true of all the things (or people) in a group, but it is not true of one thing.

  • What words indicate that something is not included in a group, rule, or pattern?
    except, except for, apart from, aside from, bar, excepting, but for, but, with the exception of, but not,
  • What words refer to something that is not included in a group?
    exception,
  • 9.6.1.5.2 Instead

    Use this domain for words indicating that something is true of one thing (or person) instead of another thing.

  • What words indicate that something is true of one thing instead of another thing?
    instead, rather than, in place of, in preference to, in favor of, in lieu,
  • What words indicate that something is true of one person instead of another person?
    instead, in someone's place, for, on someone's behalf,
  • 9.6.1.6 Dissociation

    Use this domain for words indicating a dissociation relation between two things or propositions.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89U Dissociation
  • What words indicate dissociation?
    without, not with, no relationship to, apart from, independent of, from, free from, separated from
  • 9.6.1.7 Distribution

    Use this domain for words indicating that an event is distributed throughout a group, area, or time span.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89P Distribution
  • What words indicate distribution?
    throughout, through, from...to, after, each, apiece
  • 9.6.1.8 Equivalence

    Use this domain for words indicating equivalence between two things or propositions.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89S Equivalence
  • What words indicate equivalence?
    that is, that means, i.e.,
  • 9.6.2 Dependency relations

    Use this domain for words indicating that something is dependent on another thing.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89B Dependency
  • What words express the fact that something is logically dependent on another?
    to depend on, that depends, depend upon, dependency, dependent, hang on, tied to, lean on, stand on, supportive relationship
  • 9.6.2.1 Derivation

    Use this domain for words indicating that something derives from another thing.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89C Derivation
  • What words express the fact that something is derived from another?
    derive, derived from, derivation, rooted in the past,
  • 9.6.2.2 Limitation of topic

    Use this domain for words indicating the topic that is being talked about.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89D Specification
  • What words indicate the specific area or topic that is being talked about?
    specify, specified, specification, specifically in regard to, with regard to, in the case of, concerning, in the area of, in, with, between...and, as touching, particular, particularly, more especially
  • 9.6.2.2.1 In general

    Use this domain for words indicating that something is generally true, but not true in every case.

  • What words indicate that something is generally true?
    in general, generally, mostly, on the whole, in most cases,
  • 9.6.2.3 Relations involving correspondences

    Use this domain for words indicating relations involving correspondences--a situation in which one thing is the same or similar in some respect to something else.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89E Relations Involving Correspondence
  • What words indicate that one thing corresponds to another?
    correspond to, correspondence, in accordance with, in relation to, according to, in line with, in proportion to, to apply to, to regard as applicable to, in keeping with
  • 9.6.2.4 Basis

    Use this domain for words indicating that something is the basis for another thing.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89F Basis
  • What words indicate that one thing is the basis for another?
    basis, foundation, on the basis of, in view of, by virtue of, be the basis of, form the basis of, on what basis? What do you base your...?
  • 9.6.2.5 Cause

    Use this domain for words that indicate that someone or something is the cause for an event or state, that one event is the cause for another event or state, or that an event or state is reasonable (having sufficient cause). For instance in the sentence, "John caused David to fall," "John caused" is an enabling proposition that brings about the primary proposition "David fell."

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89G Cause and/or Reason
  • What words indicate that someone caused something to happen?
    made, cause
  • What words indicate that something is the cause or reason for an event or state?
    cause, reason, source, because, because of, for this reason, for the above reasons, for the following reasons, first cause, origin, breed (v), gives birth to, due to, owing to, thus
  • What words indicate that something is reasonable?
    reasonable
  • 9.6.2.5.1 Reason

    Use this domain for words that reason why someone does something.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89G Cause and/or Reason
  • What words reason why someone does something?
    reason, motive, motivation
  • What words refer to a reason that explains why something happened?
    reason, explanation,
  • 9.6.2.5.2 Without cause

    Use this domain for words that indicate that an event or state has no cause or reason, or is unreasonable (has insufficient cause).

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89G Cause and/or Reason
  • What words indicate that something has no cause or reason?
    without cause, unreasonable, without basis, absurd, for no reason, by itself
  • What words indicate that something is contrary to reason?
    contrary to reason, absurd
  • What words indicate that something is self-caused?
  • 9.6.2.6 Result

    Use this domain for words indicating that something is the result of another thing.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89H Result
  • What words indicate the result of something?
    result, outcome, end, to result in, to lead to, wages, to end up being, have as a consequence, therefore, so then, consequently, as a result, for this reason, with the result that, so that as a result, to cause, which caused, so that, that, accordingly, then, hence, and so, yield, has the effect of
  • 9.6.2.6.1 Without result

    Use this domain for words indicating that something had no result.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89H Result
  • What words indicate that something had no result?
    without result, without effect, in vain, to no avail, with no result, have no discernable effect, pointless, useless, worthless, be left with nothing, not yield
  • 9.6.2.7 Purpose

    Use this domain for words indicating that something was done for the purpose of another thing happening.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89I Purpose
  • What words indicate the intended purpose of something?
    for, for the purpose of, for the sake of, with the purpose of, to, in order to, so that, to show that,
  • What words indicate that the purpose is so that something will not happen?
    in order that...not, so that...not, lest
  • 9.6.2.7.1 Without purpose

    Use this domain for words indicating that something had no purpose.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89I Purpose
  • What words indicate that there is no purpose to an action?
    without purpose, for no purpose, in vain, purposeless, senseless, chance, indiscriminate, meaningless, pointless, undirected,
  • 9.6.2.8 Condition

    Use this section for verbal auxiliaries, affixes, adverbs, and particles that indicate a clause in a conditional sentence (If this is true, then that is true). The following definitions are taken from Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, and William Pagliuca. 1994. The evolution of grammar. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89J Condition
  • Conditional sentences: Conditional sentences consist of two clauses, the 'if'-clause or protasis (which is a subordinate clause) and the 'then'-clause or apodosis (which is the main clause). Both of these clauses may take special verb forms. (Interestingly enough, they sometime both take the same special verb forms.)
  • There are at least three types of conditional sentences. (Labels, explanations, and examples from Li and Thompson 1981): [Li, Charles N., and Sandra A. Thompson. 1981. Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.]
  • reality condition: a conditional relation between two propositions referring to the so-called real world: 'If you see my sister, you will know that she is pregnant'.
  • hypothetical: the situation is unreal or imagined, but one that could be true: 'If we moved, we could have a garden'.
  • counterfactual: the proposition describes an unreal or imagined situation that could have been true but was not: 'If you had taken algebra, you would know this formula' (but you did not).
  • The verb forms that occur in these sentences will be coded according to the type of sentence, and according to which clause of the sentence they occur in.
  • Example: the English 'had' + past participle would be coded as:
  • meaning label: protasis
  • meaning label: counterfactual
  • Since the conjunction 'if' obligatorily occurs in the protasis, there will also be the following:
  • Co-occurrence restriction: 'if'
  • This indicates that a morpheme meaning 'if' obligatorily occurs in the protasis. If no such morpheme is necessary, then there will be no co-occurrence restriction.
  • What words indicate the condition of a conditional sentence?
    condition, if, if indeed, if at all, whether...or, or else, otherwise, unless
  • 9.6.2.9 Concession

    Use this domain for words indicating that the speaker is conceding a point in a debate.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    89K Concession
  • What words indicate that the speaker is conceding a point?
    concession, although, though, even though, and yet, even if, nevertheless
  • 9.6.3 Discourse markers

    Use this domain for conjunctions and particles that function on the discourse level, and whose meaning and function is uncertain.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    91 Discourse Markers
  • What discourse markers are in your language?
    just, you know, OK, yeah, like
  • 9.6.3.1 Markers of transition

    Use this domain for conjunctions that simply move the discourse forward without any specific relationship indicated between what comes before and what comes after.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    91A Markers of Transition
  • What words are used to join two clauses or sentences without specifying the relationship between them?
    and, then, but, now, it happened that, it came to pass that, one day, my next topic is, my next point is, now about
  • 9.6.3.2 Markers of emphasis

    Use this domain for words that indicate that the phrase or sentence is particularly important.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    91B Markers of Emphasis
  • What words indicate that a phrase or sentence is important?
    then, indeed, surely, so, certainly, in fact, actually, how, you know, really, sure, just, you know don't you that, how much more, emphatically, absolutely, without question, no way, of course, obviously, you've got to be kidding, it is just that, the only thing is, one thing that, in reality, only that, as it were, just as you can see, as you know, without a doubt, don't you remember, I am convinced that
  • 9.6.3.3 Prompters of attention

    Use this domain for words that are used to get someone's attention or direct the listener's attention to something. These may use a verb meaning 'look' or 'listen'. Some may be a word specifically referring to attention. Others may be a greeting. Others may be words that refer to non-verbal communication such as clearing your throat.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    91C Prompters of Attention
  • What words are used to get someone's attention?
    you, you there, hey you, hello, excuse me, attention, attention please, may I have your attention please, pay attention, listen up everybody, now hear this, and now for an important announcement, and now for a word from our sponsor, just a moment, wait a minute, lend me your ears, look here, ahem
  • What words are used to direct someone's attention to something?
    behold, look, will you look at that, get a load of this, (point)
  • What words are used to warn someone of danger?
    watch out, look out, heads up, hit the dirt, get out of the way, here it comes, oh no, (scream)
  • What non-verbal means are used to get someone's attention
    clear throat, whistle, raise hand
  • 9.6.3.4 Markers of direct address

    Use this domain for words that the speaker uses to refer to the person he is addressing. These words are usually used when you start talking to someone, but can be used during a speech or conversation to refer to the person you are talking to.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    91D Markers of Direct Address
  • What words are used when you start talking to someone?
    O, sir, ma'am, ladies and gentlemen, men and brothers, (look) you, (listen) all of you
  • 9.6.3.5 Markers of identificational and explanatory clauses

    Use this domain for words that begin a clause that identifies a specific case or example of what has just been said, or that explains what has just been said. Specific case: I have just mentioned a general class of things or a general idea and want to give a specific example of what I am talking about. Explanation: I have just said something and I think people might misunderstand, so I want to explain what I mean. Digression: I am talking about a particular topic, but want to say something that does not fit into my topic, so I say something that is about a different topic.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    91E Markers of Identificational and Explanatory Clauses
  • What words are used to identify a specific case?
    that, namely, namely that, that is, i.e.
  • What words are used to introduce an example?
    for example, e.g., as follows, as below, such as, let me give you an example, to illustrate
  • What words are used to introduce an explanation?
    what I mean is, that is to say, let me add, allow me to explain, it's like
  • What words are used to introduce a conclusion?
    which shows that, so we find, so we see
  • What words mark a digression?
    let me just insert, as an aside, this is off the subject, oh by the way
  • 9.6.3.6 Markers of focus

    Use this domain for words indicating that one of several things is in focus.

  • What words focus especially on one of several things?
    especially, particularly, particular, most of all
  • 9.6.3.7 Hesitation fillers

    Use this domain for words that a speaker uses when he hesitates or pauses while he is speaking in order to think about what he is saying.

  • What words are used when a speaker hesitates or pauses to think?
    um, uh, er, hmm, yeah, let's see, hold on a minute, let me see, let me think
  • 9.6.3.8 Honorifics

    Use this domain for words that the speaker uses to show respect or a lack of respect to the person he is addressing. Some languages have elaborate systems of honorifics. Other languages have none. Languages with a stratified social structure often use honorifics. Egalitarian societies generally lack them, but some egalitarian societies may use them. For instance in Nahuatl there are four levels of honorifics. Level 1 is how one addresses intimates, small children, and pets. Level 2 is for strangers and persons treated formally. Level 3 is for respected persons, the dead, and God. Level 4 is for obsequious respect, as for the archbishop in an interview with a priest, and for ritual kin. (Jane H. Hill and Kenneth C. Hill. 1978. Honorific usage in modern Nahuatl: the expression of social distance and respect in the Nahuatl of the Malinche Volcano area, Language 54:123-155.) In Japanese, which has a stratified social structure, a person uses one set of words and affixes when speaking to someone below you in the social hierarchy, such as your wife, children, and pets. A different set of words is used when speaking to peers. Another set is used when speaking to a superior. A fourth set is used when speaking to the emperor. English used to have two pronouns for second person singular. 'Thou' was used for equals and inferiors, and 'you' was used for superiors. Your language may have special honorific words used as (1) pronouns, (2) affixes, (3) particles, (4) terms of direct address, (5) greetings (6) requests, (7) apologies.

  • What pronouns are used to show respect or a lack of respect?
    thou (archaic), you (archaic),
  • What affixes are used to show respect?
    (none in English)
  • What particles are used to show respect?
    please,
  • What terms of direct address are used to show respect?
    sir, ma'am, your honor, your majesty,
  • What words are used in greetings to show respect?
    hey, hi, hello, pleased to meet you,
  • What words are used in requests to show respect?
    may, can,
  • What words are used in apologies to show respect?
    sorry, excuse me, I beg your pardon,
  • 9.7 Name

    Use this domain for general words referring to proper nouns--the name given to a particular person or thing to distinguish it from other things like it. Proper nouns are often not included in a dictionary, or are included in an appendix at the front or back of a dictionary. This is because there are so many of them, they are sometimes difficult to define, and it saves space in the dictionary. For instance place names can be included in a map. So it might be good to type the proper nouns into a special file.

    Louw Nida Codes: 
    93 Names of Persons and Places
  • What general words refer to the name of a person, place, or thing?
    name, proper noun,
  • What words refer to giving a name to someone or something?
    name (v), call, christen,
  • 9.7.1 Name of a person

    Use this domain for words related to the name of a person. Each culture has a system of personal names to identify individuals and kin groups. The subcategories under this heading should reflect the cultural system. If your language has a special set of names that do not fit any of they domains given here, then set up a special domain.

    OMC Codes: 
    551 Personal Names
    Louw Nida Codes: 
    9E Persons For Whom There Is Affectionate Concern
    93A Persons
  • What words refer to the name of a person?
    name, proper name, proper noun, first name, given name, personal name, middle name, last name, family name, father's name, surname, maiden name, initial, title, identity,
  • What words refer to a name your family or friends use for you that is not your real name?
    nickname, pet name
  • What words refer to a name you use for yourself that is not your real name?
    false name, pseudonym, pen name, stage name, alias, a.k.a. (also known as), under the name of, under an assumed name, go by the name of,
  • What words are used to refer to someone when you can't remember what they are called?
    what's his/her name, whatchamacallit, whatsit, so and so,
  • What words describe someone whose name is not known?
    anonymous, unnamed, unidentified, incognito, unknown, nameless,
  • What words refer to discovering or stating the name of someone whose name has not been known?
    name, identify,
  • What words are used to indicate a person's name?
    someone's name is, be called, be known as, named,
  • What words refer to giving someone a name?
    name (v), call, be christened, give a name to, choose a name, pick a name, call him/her 'name'
  • What words refer to the reason why someone is given a name?
    be named for, be named after, namesake
  • When is a name given?
    naming ceremony, christening
  • What words refer to writing your name?
    sign (your name), signature
  • 9.7.1.1 Personal names

    Use this domain for those names that are given to people, that people use to call to each other and to talk about each other.

  • What are the given names used by people in the language group?
    John, David, Mary, Elizabeth
  • 9.7.1.2 Family names

    Use this domain for the proper names of the families that exist within the language community. If your culture does not use family names, just leave this domain empty.

  • What names are used by all the members of a family?
    Smith, Jones, MacDonald, Johnson
  • 9.7.1.3 Clan names

    Use this domain for the proper names of the clans that exist within the language community. The distinction between family, clan, tribe, and nation is based on politics and emotion. Our purpose here is not to make political statements, but merely to list the names. There may be no distinction between family and clan, in which case ignore this domain and use the domain 'Family names'.

  • What are the proper names of the clans?
    Hatfields, McCoys, Bear Clan
  • 9.7.1.4 Tribal names

    Use this domain for the proper names of the tribes that exist around the language community, including the name of your own tribe. These tribal names may or may not correspond with the names of countries.

  • What are the proper names of the neighboring tribes?
    Saxons, Scots, Welsh, Picts, Irish, Normans, Vikings, Brits, Americans, Aussies, Kiwis, Sioux, Cherokee
  • 9.7.1.5 Names of languages

    Use this domain for the proper names of the languages that are spoken in the area around the language community, including the name of your own language. These language names may or may not correspond with the names of countries. Do not try to include every language name in the world, only the neighboring and important ones. For instance you might want to include the languages that border your own and the national language. Give the form that you use. For instance the German people call their language 'Deutsch', but in English we call it 'German'.

    OMC Codes: 
    101 Identification
  • What are the names of the languages spoken in the area?
    English, Gaelic, Irish, Welsh, Dutch, German, French, Spanish, Pidgin English
  • 9.7.1.6 Nickname

    Use this domain for common nicknames--an additional name given to a person later in life, often descriptive. Also include general names used to call or refer to someone when you don't know their name

  • What are the common nicknames?
    buddy, buster, guy, gal, bro, sis
  • What names are used to refer to someone when you don't know their name.
    John Doe, Jane Doe, Joe Blow, GI Joe
  • 9.7.1.7 Terms of endearment

    Use this domain for terms of endearment--a name used by lovers or spouses to express love or intimacy. Some languages may have special names used by close friends.

  • What are the terms of endearment?
    sweetheart, honey, dear
  • 9.7.2 Name of a place

    Use this domain for words referring to the name of a place.

    OMC Codes: 
    103 Place Names
    Louw Nida Codes: 
    93B Places
  • What words refer to the name of a place?
    place name
  • 9.7.2.1 Names of countries

    Use this domain for the proper names of the countries that exist around the language community, especially those countries where your language is spoken. Include the name of your own country. Do not list every country in the world, unless your language has developed special names or pronunciations for those countries. Include any country that you refer to in your language, especially those names whose pronunciation you have adapted to fit your language. Give the form of the name that you use, rather than the official spelling. For instance the Japanese refer to their country as 'Nihon', but in English will call it 'Japan'. So
    'Japan' is an English word and should go into an English dictionary. But 'Nihon' is not an English word and should not go in the dictionary.

  • What are the proper names of the countries where your language is spoken?
    Great Britain, United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Ireland
  • What are the proper names of the neighboring countries?
    Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain, Mexico
  • What words are used to refer to a citizen of these countries?
    Brit, the English, American, Canadian, Aussie, Kiwi
  • 9.7.2.2 Names of regions

    Use this domain for the proper names of the regions within your country or language area. Some of these may be political regions. Others may be informal terms. Give the local pronunciation, rather than some foreign spelling. You may want to limit this domain to just those areas within your language area. However if you have special names for areas outside of your language area, for example 'the Mideast', you should include them.

  • What are the names of the regions in the area?
    Yorkshire, California, Midlands, Midwest, the South, outback
  • 9.7.2.3 Names of cities

    Use this domain for the proper names of cities, towns, and villages in the language area. Include the names of important cities outside of the language area if your language has a special name for the city or a different pronunciation for it. It might be good to use a map for this. In fact it is good to include a map of the language area in a published dictionary. If your language area is very large, there may be hundreds or thousands of cities, towns, and villages. In this case you will have to decide which should be included in the dictionary. Or you could decided to list them in a special section.

  • What are the names of the cities in the language area?
    London, Washington D.C.
  • What are the names of districts within a city?
    Westminster, Chelsea
  • 9.7.2.4 Names of streets

    Use this domain for the proper names of highways, roads, streets, and trails in the language area. If there are many such names, only include the important names (e.g. King's Highway) or commonly used names (e.g. Main Street).

  • What are the names of the streets in the language area?
    King's Highway, Highway 66, Main Street, Piccadilly Square, Oregon Trail
  • 9.7.2.5 Names of heavenly bodies

    Use this domain for the proper names of the heavenly bodies.

  • What are the names of the planets?
    Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
  • What are the names of the constellations?
    Milky Way, Big Dipper, Orion, Pleiades, Southern Cross
  • What are the names of the stars?
    North Star, Morning Star, Betelgeuse, Alpha Centauri
  • What are the names of other heavenly bodies?
    Halley's Comet
  • 9.7.2.6 Names of continents

    Use this domain for the proper names of the continents. Only include the names of continents if your language has borrowed or adapted the name and you talk about them in your language.

  • What are the names of the continents?
    Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America,
  • 9.7.2.7 Names of mountains

    Use this domain for the proper names of the mountains in the language area. Only include the names of mountains outside the language area if your language has borrowed or adapted the name and you talk about them in your language.

  • What are the names of the mountains in the language area?
    Mount Rainier, Mount McKinley
  • What are the names of the mountain ranges in the language area?
    Rocky Mountains, Sierras, Appalachian Mountains
  • 9.7.2.8 Names of oceans and lakes

    Use this domain for the proper names of the oceans and lakes in the language area. Only include the names of oceans and lakes outside the language area if your language has borrowed or adapted the name and you talk about them in your language.

  • What are the names of the oceans?
    Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea
  • What are the names of the lakes in the language area?
    Lake Superior, Lake Michigan
  • 9.7.2.9 Names of rivers

    Use this domain for the proper names of the rivers in the language area. Only include the names of rivers outside the language area if your language has borrowed or adapted the name and you talk about them in your language.

  • What are the names of the rivers in the language area?
    Thames, Mississippi, Missouri, Hudson
  • 9.7.3 Name of a thing

    Use this domain for words related to the name of a thing. Many cultures give names to particular buildings, ships, airplanes, organizations, companies, schools, and other things. If your language has hundreds of names for some kind of thing, it is best to not try to list them all. But if there are a few important names for one kind of thing, set up a domain for them.

    OMC Codes: 
    553 Naming
    552 Names of Animals and Things
    Louw Nida Codes: 
    33I Name
  • What words refer to a name for something?
    name, proper name, designation, label, nomenclature, tag, title,
  • What words are used to indicate the name of something?
    be called, be known as, be entitled, be termed, go by the name of, so-called,
  • What words are used to refer to something when you can't remember what it is called?
    what's its name, thingy, thingamajig, whatchamacallit, whatsit, such and such
  • What words refer to a name that is not correct?
    misnomer,
  • What words describe something that has the name of something but not its qualities?
    nominal, in name only,
  • What words refer to giving something a name?
    call, name, rename,
  • 9.7.3.1 Names of animals

    Use this domain for words referring to the name of an animal. Some cultures give names to domesticated animals or to animals in stories. Think through each kind of domesticated animal.

  • What words refer to the name of an animal?
    Br'er rabbit
  • What names are given to dogs?
    Lassie, Fifi, Toto
  • 9.7.3.2 Names of buildings

    Use this domain for words referring to the name of a building.

  • What words refer to the name of a building?
    White House, Capitol